Any Monstera Deliciosa plant has the potential to develop ever-larger leaves on any given vine. Usually, they just keep vining out with small, heart-shaped leaves with the odd fenestration if you're lucky but it's all a matter of strategy.
The main considerations are light, nutrients, and aerial root usage. It is also said that cutting away the smaller leaves as it grows encourages bigger, more fenestrated leaves to grow. The one most people ignore is the roots... However you can, guide the roots into a medium that provides moisture and ideally nutrients. This can be accomplished by coaxing it up a thick moss pole and moistening the pole, but that's not really necessary. Unlike most Monstera species, Monstera Deliciosa doesn't really care if it climbs or not. Given good conditions it will keep putting out bigger and more beautiful leaves almost exponentially until they reach a foot or more across.
Another strategy is air layering. We'll soon have an article about this process to link, but here's a summary: Air layering refers to several strategies to propagate a plant by stimulating it to grow new roots from a branch or node before cutting it off, as opposed to taking a "cutting" then trying to get it to grow roots. When you take a cutting of Monstera Deliciosa, it is likely to lose some leaves and/or revert to a more immature form while it concentrates energy on establishing roots. By air layering, you encourage the plant to establish a viable root system before taking a cutting. Do this to the end of a vine that is already getting bigger leaves, and it will just pick up where it left off, giving you a more compact plant with only mature leaves.
A good way to accomplish this is to wrap a new leaf node in moss and plastic wrap or foil, near the end of a vine that is beginning to produce larger leaves. Keep the moss moist by spraying it or pouring some water in every couple days. Monstera Deliciosa tends to produce one main root per leaf, so the new leaf node will get a large root structure developed very quickly. Once the new root starts to grow and branch in the moss, cut the whole thing off and plant it, and begin fertilizing immediately and providing good light and water. It will already have a good flow of water and nutrients from the established root system, so the new leaves will not die and will continue to get bigger.