There is no one right way to transplant your house plants, and different plants may benefit from slightly different approaches. This is a very generic explanation that will work well for most any plant that have out grown their containers.
Choosing a New Pot
When you've decided your plant has outgrown its pot, the first step is to find an appropriate replacement. A good general rule of thumb is that the new container should be at least twice as big as the old one. Being transplanted is traumatic for a plant, so you don't want to have to do it all the time. It's also easier to fill the new pot with the right materials if you have some space around the root mass to work with. Hold the old container above the new one to get a feel for it. The below example is just barely big enough. If possible, go bigger. The new pot should have good drainage. If the drainage is lacking, it should be all that much bigger.
Preparing the new pot
Before you start filling it with dirt, take some time to prepare the new pot.
1. Clean the pot if it's dirty.
It doesn't need to be squeaky clean, especially on the inside.
2. Protect the drainage
Locate the drainage holes and put some material over and around them to prevent them getting clogged. The fewer drainage holes the more important this is. In this example, there is only one small drainage hole, so we'll be very diligent. I used clay pellets and moss, but course gravel works well too.
3. Check your spacing and add some dirt
Hold the old pot inside the new pot to get a feel for how much dirt to put in ahead of time. Most plants do best if they are a little high up (the top of the root ball can be a little above the soil). Then add some dirt to the bottom of the pot and try holding the old pot in the new one again to see if it's enough. Repeat until you feel like the plant will be held high enough off the pot bottom by the new dirt. At this point, your new pot should have some dirt in the bottom like this:
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